2D Models in horizontal cans

This study, started in October 2010, was supported by TUBITAK-TOVAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey – Agriculture, Forestry & Veterinary Research Grant Committee) with a project number of 110O066, and completed in April 2012.

Ziynet Boz (Masters Student) and Rahmi Uyar (Ph.D. Student) were involved in this project and financially supported by TUBITAK.


Use of mathematical simulations is preferred for testing the efficiency of thermal processing during canning, and simulations are also known to play a significant role in process optimization. Use of axi-symmetrical approach in vertical cans lead to apply 2 dimensional models in simulations resulting in shorter computation times. However, in horizontal cans including liquid or liquid-solid mixtures, this approach is not possible to apply. Assuming to neglect the effect of natural convection in radial direction compared to the one in horizontal direction, it would be possible to use 2 dimensional approaches in horizontal cans without applying the axi-symmetrical approach. Therefore, the objective of this project is to simulate the heat transfer in horizontal cans of liquid and solid-liquid mixtures and validate the simulation results with experimental results to demonstrate the use of 2 dimensional approaches. To accomplish the given objectives, the project was completed in simulation and experimental studies. In simulation studies, continuity, energy and momentum equations were solved using Ansys CFX and Ansys in 2 and 3 dimensional models for cans including liquid (water) and liquid-solid mixtures (water-peas). In the experiments, the cans in 500 g capacity were prepared and processed. The experimentally obtained temperature change results in cans were compared with simulation results for validation of the simulation models. The results of this study demonstrated the possible use of 2 dimensional simulations models for liquid or solid-liquid mix containing horizontal cans without applying the axi-symmetrical approaches.

Keywords: canning, simulation, heat transfer, natural convection